Psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition. This disease is recurrent. Very rarely, psoriasis can affect joints, nails and mucous membranes. People of all ages are susceptible to psoriatic disease. According to statistics, there has been a tendency for the development of the disease in childhood.
Psoriasis is absolutely not a contagious disease of a chronic nature. Most dermatologists tend to believe that psoriasis is a systemic disease. In their opinion, the disease affects not only a specific area of the skin, but also draws into the pathological process almost all systems of the body (endocrine, immune, nervous).
From the outside, it may seem that psoriasis is a mild disease. But in reality, this is far from the case. The disease is dangerous. Deaths are known in dermatology. In case of untimely or incorrect treatment, psoriasis affects the entire body, which leads to severe complications. For example:
- psoriatic arthritis
- swollen lymph nodes
- mucosal damage
- flattening and damage to the nail plates
- spontaneous pain
- rarely - heart damage
As a rule, psoriasis does not disrupt the usual rhythm of life of a sick person. The only inconvenience is peeling and inflammation of the skin. Unfortunately, it is impossible to recover from this ailment, but it is quite possible to stop its development or prevent the occurrence of relapses. To do this, it is enough to fulfill all the doctor's prescriptions and undergo systematic treatment in a hospital.
Causes of psoriasis
There is no specific cause of the onset of the disease. There are many factors that can lead to the development of psoriasis. There is no unequivocal opinion about one reason or another in dermatology. There are many versions. Most dermatologists are of the opinion that the disease has a genetic predisposition. It is impossible to unequivocally affirm or deny that heredity is the main reason. There are cases when the whole family was sick with psoriasis.
In other words, we can say this: if a mother suffers from psoriasis, then it is not necessary that her offspring should definitely show signs of this disease. But it is also impossible to exclude a genetic predisposition. For example, if a grandmother suffers from this ailment, then it is possible that grandchildren will never be diagnosed with psoriasis. The question of the causes of the development of the disease at the gene level remains open to this day.
The next factor, which, according to many dermatologists, can provoke the appearance of psoriasis, is a disease of the endocrine system. For example, adrenal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, pituitary dysfunction. The percentage of signs of psoriatic disease in people suffering from pathologies in the endocrine system is quite high. Therefore, the connection between diseases exists and is proven by numerous examples.
In addition to the above reasons, there are many endogenous factors. For example:
- Postponed diseases of an infectious nature, for example, tonsillitis. According to statistics, 17% of the patients surveyed believe that psoriasis is a consequence of complications of angina.
- Chronic infectious pathological processes, such as laryngitis or tonsillitis, can also provoke psoriatic disease.
- Long-term use of certain medications: interferons, NSAIDs, beta-blockers, and others.
- As strange as it may sound, pregnancy can also lead to the development of psoriasis. In a woman's body, significant hormonal changes occur, which often trigger a dormant pathological process in the body.
- It is impossible to exclude the negative effect on the human body of excessive consumption of ultraviolet radiation, that is, prolonged exposure to the scorching sun or frequent visits to the solarium.
Naturally, in addition to endogenous factors, there are a number of exogenous causes. For example, skin diseases (dermatitis, mycosis, pyoderma), mechanical damage to the integrity of the skin, allergic dermatitis.
Interesting fact. Psoriasis is significantly more common in HIV-infected people than in healthy people. It is important to note that women are more susceptible to psoriatic disease than the male population. Dry, thinned and sensitive skin is another predisposing factor.
You should know that if a person has disorders of the immune system, then quite often this pathology provokes psoriasis. Immune disorders and psoriatic disease are closely related.
There are a huge number of reasons leading to psoriasis, but there is not a single one that would completely lead to the development of the disease.
Types and forms of psoriasis
Psoriasis is a multiforme disease. According to statistics, people usually suffer from only one form of psoriasis at a time. But there are cases when a person has several forms of psoriasis at the same time. Quite often in dermatological practice, and such cases when one form of psoriasis smoothly passed into another. Such a "rebirth", as a rule, leads to an abrupt stop of the prescribed treatment.
In dermatology, there are two main groups of types of psoriasis: non-pustular and pustular.
Pustular forms- Barbera psoriasis, psoriasis of the soles and palms (see photo), Tsumbusha psoriasis, annular pustulosis. This form of psoriasis is conventionally divided into generalized and localized. The last pustular psoriasis can occur on absolutely any area of the skin. There are cases when pustules form on plaques in psoriasis vulgaris.
As an example of an independent disease, you can consider Allopo acrodermatitis. As a rule, this disease is characterized by lesions of pustules and crusts of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes. Another example of an independent disease of a localized form of psoriasis is pustular psoriasis of the soles and palms. It is important to note that some dermatologists tend to think that this disease is a form of pustular bacteriide.
Generalized pustular psoriasis includes:
- herpetiform impetigo,
- psoriasis Tsumbusha,
- exanthemic generalized psoriasis.
As a rule, men from 15 to 35 years old suffer from Tsumbush psoriasis. This disease is much less common in females.
Exanthemic pustular psoriasis occurs abruptly (suddenly) and acutely. In most cases, there is a close relationship with other infectious diseases, such as tonsillitis. The rash is localized mainly on the trunk. More often children, adolescents, less often adults are susceptible to the disease.
Herpetiform impetigo is a serious illness that can lead to death. As a rule, this disease is characteristic of pregnant women, more often in the second trimester. But in dermatological practice, there were still extremely rare cases of the disease in men, non-pregnant women and children.
Non-pustular psoriasis. . . In other words, we can say simple psoriasis. This form of the disease differs from others in a stable course. For the non-pustular form of psoriasis, almost the entire surface of the body is affected. This type includes:
- erythrodermic psoriasis
- psoriasis vulgaris, or ordinary, or plaque.
Ordinary psoriasis occurs quite often, up to 90% of patients with psoriasis are patients with the vulgar form of this disease.
Psoriatic erythroderma is a serious disease that often leads to a fatal outcome - the death of the patient. With the disease, there is a violation of the function of thermoregulation, as well as a decrease in the barrier function of the skin. These pathologies lead to pyoderma or sepsis.
Classification and symptoms of psoriasis
There is no single classification of psoriasis generally accepted by dermatologists. There is still debate over how to classify this skin disease. Some sources have their own list of forms of psoriasis. The most common classification of the disease:
- Guttate psoriasis
- Pustular psoriasis
- Psoriatic onychia
- Psoriasis of the mucous membranes
- Exudative psoriasis
- Psoriasis of soles and palms
- Arthropathic psoriasis
- Intertriginous psoriasis
- Psoriatic erythroderma
- Seborrheic psoriasis
- Vulgar psoriasis
- Pustular bacteride
- Tsumbusha psoriasis
Arthropathic psoriasisinitially is almost asymptomatic. Patients sometimes note only slight pain in the joints. Over time, the pain intensifies, becomes sharp and acute. The affected joints become swollen. If the disease is not treated, then the joints are deformed, and there is a limitation in their mobility. As a rule, arthropathic psoriasis is often accompanied by rheumatoid-type pain. In winter, there is an aggravation of the disease, that is, seasonality is characteristic of such psoriasis.
Pustular psoriasis. . . It is not common, only 1% of the total mass of patients with psoriasis falls on this type of disease. In most cases, the rash is symmetrical and localized on the soles and palms. Pustular psoriasis is generalized and localized. The latter form is more common than the previous one. Generalized pustular psoriasis is difficult. In dermatology, there are frequent cases of death as a result of sepsis and severe intoxication of the body.
Psoriatic erythroderma. . . Severe psoriasis resulting from exacerbation of pre-existing psoriasis. This disease can be both a consequence of an exacerbation of the underlying disease, and the first time it has arisen. Secondary erythroderma psoriatic develops, as a rule, in 2% of those suffering from this ailment.
Quite often, this disease occurs spontaneously, but cases of psoriasis as a result of improper, irritating treatment of dermatosis in the acute period of the disease are not excluded. Patients note an increase in pathological foci of desquamation, an increase in temperature, and dehydration is detected. In dermatological practice, there have been cases of death in psoriatic erythroderma.
Guttate psoriasis- the second most common disease among all forms of psoriasis, children and adolescents suffer more often. It is characterized by the appearance on the skin of a large number of dry, purple and small elements that rise slightly above the surface of the unaffected skin. The rash is in the form of a drop, circle, or teardrop. As a rule, the elements cover the entire human body, but most "densely" are localized on the thighs. In most cases, the appearance of teardrop-shaped psoriasis is provoked by a streptococcal infection. For example, streptococcal sore throat, streptococcal pharyngitis.
Psoriatic onychia. . . This disease is characterized by various changes in the appearance of the nail plate, both on the hands and feet alike. First of all, the color of the nail changes, sometimes the nail bed together. The nail turns gray, yellow, or whitens. On the nails, and sometimes under the nail plate itself, dots or small spots appear. The nail plate thickens, striation and brittleness appear. Another clinical manifestation of the disease is thickening of the skin around the nail bed. The severe outcome of psoriatic onychia is the spontaneous loss of the nail.
Psoriasis of the mucous membranes- is a type of pustular psoriasis or psoriasis vulgaris. Most often, the mucous membrane of the cheeks, tongue and lips is affected, less often the mucous membrane of the genitals and eyes. With the pustular form of psoriasis, the rashes are more extensive, a large area of the mucous membrane is affected, and geographical glossitis is noted. In ordinary psoriasis, flat white-grayish papules with clear boundaries appear on the mucous membranes, towering over the unaffected surface.
Psoriasis of soles and palms. . . This disease is a form of localized pustular psoriasis. As a rule, this form is chronic and recurrent. In dermatology, there are cases when Barbera's psoriasis proceeded with plaque psoriasis at the same time. Pustules appear on the inner surface of the hands and / or feet. Over time and under the influence of medical therapy, the vesicle-pustules dry out. Then such dried elements form dense brownish crusts.
Intertrigue psoriasis. . . This disease is characterized by the appearance of rashes in mainly large folds of the skin. For example, intergluteal, folds between the fingers, groin fold, armpits and the area under the mammary gland. Intertrigue psoriasis is more common in patients with diabetes mellitus, VSD (vegetative-vascular dystonia), obesity, who do not follow simple hygiene rules.
Erythematous-papular edematous foci, erosive and weeping, form in the folds. An important feature of the elements of this disease is that detachment of the stratum corneum is pronounced along the periphery. Intertrigue psoriasis is very similar to epidermophytosis, candidiasis, or rubromycosis. It is important to note that the clinical picture of candidiasis or dermatomycosis is much brighter and sharper than that of psoriasis.
Seborrheic psoriasis. . . In terms of its symptoms, seborrheic psoriasis is very similar to seborrheic eczema. As a rule, psoriatic rash has the same localization as the elements with seborrheic eczema. It can be:
- nasolabial folds
- chest area
- interscapular region
With seborrheic psoriasis, areas on the head appear on which severe flaking of the skin is noted. An important feature of this disease is the formation of a kind of psoriatic crown. The lesion of the skin occurs from the forehead and smoothly spreads to the scalp, in such a simple way the outlines of the crown appear. It should be noted that dandruff is an alarm signal that "speaks" of the development of seborrheic psoriasis.
Behind the auricle, as a rule, red eczema forms, and purulent crusts are often layered. For rashes with localization on the chest and face, grayish-yellow scales are characteristic. A psoriatic rash always causes severe itching. It is important to note that seborrheic psoriasis is difficult to diagnose, as it is often confused with seborrhea.
Exudative psoriasis. . . This type of psoriasis is more common in children and the elderly. A rather high risk of developing this disease in patients with disorders in the endocrine and immune systems. Exudative psoriasis often affects the healthy skin of people who are overweight or have diabetes.
This disease is characterized by excessive accumulation of exudate in the papule, which gradually comes to its surface, forming yellowish crusts. If the crusts are removed, a weeping and bleeding surface is exposed. The scales dry up over time and lay on top of each other, thus forming a rather dense and massive conglomerate.
The main feature of exudative psoriasis is a clear localization of pathological foci. As a rule, the lower limbs and large folds are most affected. The rash gives a person the strongest itching and burning sensation. The clinical picture of this disease is sharp and acute.
Vulgar psoriasis. . . It has different names in different sources. For example, plaque, ordinary, simple. This type of psoriasis ranks first in terms of prevalence - in almost 90% of patients with psoriasis, this particular type is observed. The disease usually begins acutely enough. The first symptoms appear almost immediately.
Vulgar psoriasis is characterized by the appearance of typical elements that rise slightly above the unaffected areas of the skin. The rash is inflamed, red, and hot to the touch. The elements are thickened, covered with a silvery white, scaly, dry film (skin) that peels off easily.
You should be aware that gray crusts are easily removed, which leads to injury to the lower layer of the papule, which is equipped with numerous small vessels. This usually results in a minor undercut. The affected lesions in dermatology are called psoriatic plaques.
Such plaques have a tendency to coalesce, which leads to their increase in size. Over time, plaque plates are formed, which have a peculiar name - "paraffin lakes". Psoriatic eruptions with ordinary psoriasis are highly flaky. Treatment is long-term, requiring inpatient treatment.
Pustular bacteride. . . According to statistics, this disease occurs mainly in young people (from 20 years old) and middle (up to 50 years old). The exact etiology of the pustular bacteriide has not been established. There is an assumption that the disease develops against the background of a strong and prolonged allergy associated with infectious foci. For example, carious teeth, tonsillitis or tonsillitis.
Psoriatic eruptions affect the skin of the palms and soles. The pustular bacteride is chronic and recurrent. The first foci appear, if on the palms, then in the very center, if on the sole, then on the arch. Primary psoriatic elements are small in size, not exceeding the size of the head of a pin. Over time, the pustules dry up and form lamellar crusts. Patients feel severe itching and soreness in the affected areas.
A paroxysmal course of the disease is characteristic of a pustular bacteriide. At the same time, inflammation occurs in all areas affected by psoriasis. Gradually, psoriatic foci increase, and after several weeks, almost the entire surface of the palms or soles is drawn into the pathological process. As a rule, the pustular bacterium lasts for years and with constant relapses.
Nutrition for psoriasis
Patients with psoriasis are simply required to follow a diet and adhere to the basic principles of proper nutrition. The main task of the diet is to maintain normal acid-base balance. But it is important to note that the alkaline background of the body should slightly prevail over the acid one.
Naturally, the balance of the body depends on the foods that psoriasis patients consume daily. It is important to know for every person suffering from this ailment that 70% of the daily diet should be accounted for by products that form alkali in the body. For acid-forming - no more than 30%. In simpler terms, it is possible to say this: products that produce alkali must be consumed 4 times more than acid-forming ones.
List of products that form alkali in the body:
- Any vegetables except rhubarb, pumpkin, and Brussels sprouts. It is important to remember that potatoes, peppers, eggplants and tomatoes are strictly prohibited.
- Fruit should not be ruled out. The main thing is not to use prunes, cranberries, currants and blueberries. It is worth noting that bananas, melons and apples should not be consumed at the same time with other foods.
- Be sure to drink fresh vegetable juices from carrots, beets, parsley, celery and spinach.
- Fruit juices from grapes, pineapple, pear, orange, papaya and grapefruit, mango, lemon and apricot can be consumed daily. It is important to add lemon juice to your food.
The list of foods that psoriasis patients are prohibited from eating (form acid):
- You should completely eliminate or reduce to a minimum the consumption of foods containing starch, fats, sugars and oils. Typically, these include the following foods: potatoes, beans, cream, cheese, cereals, meat, dried peas. An unbalanced daily intake of these products inevitably leads to the initiation of acid reactions in the blood. The result is a deterioration in well-being.
- Balancing your food is important. There are a number of foods that are prohibited from being consumed at the same time. For example, meat products with foods that contain a large amount of sugars, and sweets and starch should not be combined.
- It is important to limit your sugar intake. Preservatives, vinegar, dyes and various food additives should be included in the diet as little as possible.
- The main point is that it is necessary to completely exclude the consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages.
Every psoriasis patient should remember that eating right is an important condition in the treatment of this ailment. It is imperative to replace frying with stewing or boiling. It is necessary to eat foods that are subject to gentle processing.
Treatment of psoriasis should take place during an exacerbation in a hospital setting, and on an outpatient basis - during remission. Diet is an important point in treatment. Fasting days are useful.
In addition to diets and specialized treatments, it is important to carefully monitor skin hygiene. For washing, it is best to use tar soap, you can also use baby soap. You should, as often as possible, take a bath with a decoction of celandine, violet tricolor or hops.
If there are no contraindications, you can try to treat psoriasis and folk remedies. Do not experiment and self-medicate. Only a doctor has the right to advise which folk remedy is useful and necessary.
List of safe and effective ointments for psoriasis:
- One pack of butter (but not spread) butter should be placed in a saucepan with crushed propolis (10 g). Put on fire and cook after boiling for 15 minutes. After - it is necessary to thoroughly strain the mixture and allow to cool. Store this medicine only in the refrigerator. Method of application - rub into the affected area several times a day.
- In a clay dish, it is necessary to grind fresh flowers of St. John's wort (20 g), celandine root, propolis, calendula flowers (10 g). Vegetable oil is added to the resulting mixture. Store in a cool place out of direct sunlight. Method of application - thoroughly lubricate psoriatic eruptions 3 times a day.
- In one liter of white wine for half an hour, boil the gallbladder and scales of sea fish, the weight of which exceeds three kilograms, on a fairly low flame. Cool, strain, then add one glass of olive oil. Method of application - wash the affected areas thoroughly with egg soap and wipe dry. After that, lubricate the elements with this mixture. The course of treatment is until the medicine runs out.
- Mix equal parts of celandine powder and petroleum jelly (by weight) thoroughly. Method of application - the ointment is laid out in a thin layer on the rash and left for up to three days. After that, you need to take a short break, about 4 days. To be treated until the psoriasis disappears completely.
- One tablespoon of vegetable oil is added to beaten homemade eggs (2 pieces). The mixture is whipped again, after which acetic acid (40 g) is introduced. Store the ointment in a jar with a tight-fitting lid. Method of application - treat psoriatic eruptions once a day, preferably at night.
- An equally effective and common remedy for the treatment of psoriasis is healing mud. The mud must be warmed up to 38 degrees and applied to the affected skin. This procedure should be performed in the evening, preferably before bedtime. After 30 minutes, the dirt is removed with warm water. It is important to remember that after dirt, all rashes should be treated with saline. The body should dry out and the excess salt should fall off. Without washing off or moisturizing the skin, you need to go to bed. And only in the morning, lubricate psoriatic elements with cream. The recommended course is 20 procedures (every other day).
Whatever the popular method of treating psoriasis is chosen, it must be negotiated with the attending dermatologist.