Psoriasis is presented as a non-infectious skin pathology of a chronic nature. Statistics say that 3. 7% of the world's inhabitants are prone to this disease, called scaly lichen. Gender in this case does not matter, psoriasis is not a contagious disease, while the risk group is represented by people aged 14-27 years. Spotted red peeling with white scales appears on the skin.
Localization is possible on any part of the body, but the most common places are the scalp, lower back, knees and elbows. Since the disease in question is chronic, it is manifested by periods of remission and exacerbations. How much does the pathology affect the patient's life, and how to get rid of psoriasis forever?
Reasons for the appearance
To understand what causes psoriasis, it is worth realizing that the process of formation of pathology is systemic, both the skin and the whole human body are involved in it. The reasons are not completely clear, they can be viral, infectious, hereditary, neurogenic or mixed. Humoral and cellular immunity is activated, which contributes to the launch of an autoimmune process of cell damage, primarily epidermal cells.
Metabolism is also disturbed, and burdened heredity also exacerbates skin psoriasis. As a result, cell regeneration is accelerated by 3-5 times, which leads to the formation of psoriatic plaques. So, why does psoriasis occur, in which the quality of life is 80% dependent on the correct treatment and timely detection of the disease:
- Bad heredity;
- Depression, constant stress;
- Problems with hormones;
- Allergic diseases;
- Candidiasis and streptoderma;
- Viral pathologies;
- Infections of a parasitic nature;
- Problems with metabolism.
The amount of rash at the very beginning of the pathology can be considered insignificant. Studying the symptoms will allow you to know what psoriasis looks like on the body and how to recognize it. Psoriatic plaque plays the role of a key symptom. This is a hyperemic area of the skin with scales. Against the background of healthy skin, it seems noticeable and sublime. The presence of the following signs is the reason to urgently consult a dermatologist:
- Convex spots on the skin with light scales;
- Itching in problem areas;
- Excessive dryness of the skin and peeling;
- Painful cracks, blisters in the area of the palms and feet;
- Deformed and exfoliating nail plates.
Types of psoriasis
The classification of psoriasis involves the division of the disease into different types and forms. It is worth considering the following types of psoriasis, taking into account the localization of the pathology and the nature of the rashes:
- Plaque psoriasis on the body is often referred to as vulgar, ordinary or simple. This is the most common variant, being diagnosed in 85% of the total number of patients. Inflamed areas of the skin have a typical appearance for the disease in question - they easily exfoliate, reddened, with fever. The red skin under the scales is easily injured and can bleed. Over time, the plaques merge into the so-called paraffin lake.
- Inverse cutaneous psoriasis affects the flexor surfaces. Inflamed areas of the skin are devoid of peeling, and almost do not protrude above healthy skin. Localization is represented by skin folds, namely, folds under the breast, if psoriasis in women, armpits, the area of the external genital organs, the inner surface of the thighs and skin folds in the groin. When sweat is released, the skin is injured or friction occurs, the condition of the inflamed areas worsens. Diabetics and children are the most frequent patients.
- Pustular psoriasis on the skin is characterized by the most complex symptoms. Blisters with a transparent uninfected exudate of an inflammatory nature rise above healthy areas of the skin. Around the pustules thickened, inflamed, red skin with fever.
- Rupioid psoriasis in humans is characterized not only by plaque-like rashes, but also by acute inflammation of the epidermis. The surface of the skin under the plaques is bright pink and weeping.
- Guttate psoriasis in adults is characterized by an abundant number of small vesicles of purple or red color. The shape of the bubbles may resemble circles, teardrops, dots or drops. The affected area is often quite extensive, it can be psoriasis on the head, neck, shoulders, back, lower legs or thighs. Angina or streptococcal pharyngitis are often provocateurs of the development of the pathology in question.
Forms of psoriasis
As for the forms of psoriasis, it can be psoriatic erythroderma, arthropathic psoriasis or psoriatic onychodystrophy:
- Psoriatic onychodystrophy, affecting the nails, leads to deformation of the nail plate on the fingers of the lower or upper extremities. It is possible to change the color of the nail itself or the nail bed. This type of psoriasis also leads to the formation of thickening, transverse lines, spots, dots, as well as increased fragility and delamination. Even complete loss of the nail is possible.
- Erythrodermic psoriasis in men and women develops gradually and proceeds with complications. This is a consequence of ignored plaque psoriasis, when the epidermis becomes very red and swollen, characterized by a clear acute inflammatory process. Peeling and inflammation spreads over large areas, accompanied by soreness, itching, and swelling of the subcutaneous tissue. With this form of pathology, a lethal outcome is more likely than with others, since the body loses the ability to regulate body temperature due to extensive inflammation, peeling and detachments.
- Psoriatic arthritis, in addition to the main symptoms, is complemented by an inflammatory process in the joints and connective tissues. This form of pathology can affect any joints, but most often these are small joints of the upper and lower extremities. If the disease spreads to the knee or hip joints, there is a high chance of losing the ability to move. The considered form of the disease accounts for 10-15% of all cases when psoriasis skin disease is diagnosed.
Stages of development
How psoriasis develops is characterized by three successive stages. Each patient with the disease in question goes through them all, but with proper treatment, the duration of the second stage can be significantly reduced:
- The progressive stage is characterized by an increase in the first signs and a deterioration in general health;
- At the stationary stage, there is a peak in the development of pathology;
- The regression stage is represented by subsiding symptoms and a significant improvement in overall health.
A dermatovenereologist is engaged in the diagnosis and further treatment of the skin disease psoriasis. There are usually no difficulties in determining the disease, since skin lesions are of a special nature. Rarely, there is a need for additional laboratory tests in the form of determining the rheumatoid factor and a complete blood count. The participation of a rheumatologist becomes relevant if psoriatic arthritis is diagnosed. In such a situation, it is necessary to make an x-ray of the joints. The expediency of a skin biopsy is observed in extreme cases, when it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis.
The quality of life
The occurrence of psoriasis leads to a significant decrease in the quality of life. Difficulties can arise during social adaptation and in the work sphere due to physical and emotional discomfort. Severe itching and pain can complicate basic life processes: sleep, body care, walking, playing sports, performing professional errands, taking care of the house, pets.
On the part of patients, excessive concern for their own appearance is often manifested, they are afraid of a negative reaction from others and have low self-esteem. Pain along with itching and emotional discomfort often leads to social isolation, anxiety disorders, social phobia and depressive states.
Getting rid of psoriasis involves an integrated approach using the following categories of drugs and drugs.
Creams and ointments
Ointments and creams allow you to fight psoriasis quite effectively with minimal side effects. These funds are usually applied directly to the inflamed areas:
- Hormonal ointments are among the most effective, they eliminate the main symptoms and block the proliferation of keratinocytes. The most powerful means of this category can irritate the skin, provoke dryness and thinning of the epidermis.
- Salicylic acid eliminates psoriatic flakes by cleansing the skin. The dosage when using this remedy is extremely important, since excessive use leads to hair loss and irritation of the skin.
- Retinoids are the active form of vitamin A, they are almost as effective as hormonal ointments, but the clinical effect is achieved longer. Hypersensitivity to ultraviolet light is the most common adverse syndrome.
- Tar ointments reduce the severity of negative symptoms and block the growth of skin cells. Side effects include alopecia, acne, or folliculitis.
- An ointment or gel form of vitamin D. Combined use with hormonal agents gives the maximum effect.
- Moisturizing creams help eliminate negative side symptoms in the form of dryness and itching, but they are unacceptable as the main method of treatment.
- Anthralin in the composition of ointments helps to eliminate scales, blocks the proliferation of keratinocytes. After applying to the inflamed area, the product must be washed off after a while.
Tablets for psoriasis
Since it is not always possible to defeat psoriasis through local therapy, it becomes necessary to supplement the treatment strategy with a tablet form of drugs. Side effects can increase significantly, so constant monitoring of your overall health through testing and visiting a doctor is a must:
- Systemic glucocorticosteroids reduce inflammation, swelling and itching, block the increased activity of skin cells. Side effects are extremely numerous, so the tablets of the Anna group are rarely prescribed.
- Psoriasis all over the body can be treated with Methotrexate, which shows an effective cytostatic and anti-inflammatory effect. The body reacts quite positively to low dosages. Rare side effects include increased fatigue, decreased appetite, and digestive problems.
- Retinoids are effective in cases where the skin disease psoriasis cannot be treated by other means. Among the side effects are alopecia and inflammation of the lip area. After using the pills of this group, you can not give birth for 3 years, since retinoids provoke the occurrence of birth defects.
- Cyclosporine has much in common with methotrexate and belongs to the category of immunosuppressants. An increase in blood pressure and the occurrence of renal pathology are the most common side effects.
- If the listed drugs cannot be used due to the characteristics of the patient's body, it becomes expedient to prescribe hydroxyurea.
Medicines that help get rid of psoriasis can be presented in the form of injections with the following components:
- Antihistamines instantly block acute itching;
- Glucocorticosteroids in the form of injections are used if tablets and ointments with this component are not effective;
- Biological preparations are the result of the synthesis of human and animal proteins. They have a beneficial effect on the body's immune system, but their price is too high for many patients.
It is also worth considering special therapeutic shampoos, since only they can remove psoriasis on the head:
- Antifungal shampoos are effective if the causative agent of pathological inflammation is a fungal infection;
- Shampoos containing corticosteroids;
- Tar shampoo or soap is used to eliminate psoriatic scales, as well as reduce burning and itching. It is also acceptable to add birch tar directly to the shampoo that the patient usually uses.
If the appearance of psoriasis is diagnosed in time, many drugs can bring the proper result, the specialist will recommend the most suitable one.
Biologically active substances
Since it is rarely possible to quickly get rid of psoriasis, dietary supplements should be taken as an additional maintenance therapy:
- Vitamin D is useful, since calcium is one of the most important minerals in the fight against the skin disease in question, and vitamin D is needed for its absorption. The use of this supplement at the stage of transition of the active phase to the stationary phase is most effective.
- Silicon in the composition of vitamin-mineral complexes plays the role of a sorbent that attracts antigens, and also improves the condition of the skin.
- Lecithin is able to quickly restore epithelial cells, which die in this pathology. The integrity of the skin is restored much faster, and the inflammatory process becomes less pronounced.
- Omega-3 acids and fish oil also contribute to the elimination of the inflammatory process.
Folk approaches to treatment
To increase the effectiveness of medications, complex therapy can be supplemented with alternative methods of treatment, but remember that psoriasis on the back and other areas may be sensitive to allergenic substances, so you should first consult with your doctor:
- Chinese green tea helps to reduce discomfort due to skin itching, plaques brighten. Application is possible inside in the form of a drink or externally in the form of masks on the affected areas.
- Sunbathing can reduce the manifestations of psoriasis, especially in combination with sea water. Exposure to ultraviolet should not be direct, it is better to sunbathe in the shade. If you ignore this recommendation, the manifestations of psoriasis are eliminated only for a while, but soon the disease will return with even more pronounced negative symptoms.
- Ointment of birch tar, salicylic alcohol and sea buckthorn oil should be applied directly to the affected areas for 2 hours. If the psoriasis on the abdomen or back is extensive enough, it is worth laying gauze over the ointment. After washing off the ointment, it is necessary to apply celandine tincture in the form of oil.
- An infusion of flaxseed allows you to eliminate the clinical symptoms of the disease in question in a week. For a day, soak a spoonful of seeds in a glass of boiling water, then boil, cool and strain, take in the morning before meals in combination with activated charcoal (1 tablet for every 10 kg of weight). The course should be continued for 20 days, even if the manifestations of psoriasis have disappeared. Products with caffeine in the composition should not be consumed.
- Propolis and butter in the form of an ointment in a ratio of 1: 20. Mix the ingredients, boil for 15 minutes, strain and apply to the affected areas. The product must be stored in the refrigerator.
- Celery decoctions can be taken orally once a day, and a compress can be applied for 2 hours for 21 days. Three courses with a break of a week will be enough to forget about the disease for several years.
- Celandine powder and petroleum jelly in the form of an ointment must be used for 3 days, applied to inflamed skin areas. After a break of 4 days, the course continues until the external manifestations completely disappear. To prepare the product, all components are mixed in equal proportions.
Prevention of psoriasis, as well as measures to prevent exacerbations, are as relevant as the treatment itself:
- The cleanliness of the skin must be monitored very carefully, use moisturizing creams based on natural ingredients.
- Monitor your overall health, especially if you have immune problems. Taking multivitamin complexes is a mandatory component of the prevention of psoriasis.
- Regular massage improves lymph outflow and blood circulation, due to which decay products are removed faster and the skin is better cleansed.
- Any contact with household chemicals must be limited to the maximum. Gloves and household respirators are mandatory protective equipment if it is not possible to transfer household chores to other family members. When choosing household chemicals, pay attention to the presence of dyes, chemicals and fragrances. The Christmas tree level should be equal to the natural one. It is also worth minimizing the use of skin care cosmetics and decorative cosmetics.
- Often the first signs of the disease appear after a nervous strain, so it is important to master various methods of relaxation and self-control. The benefits of healthy sleep should not be overlooked. With frequent stress, it is permissible to take herbal soothing tinctures and teas.
- Smoking is a direct provocateur of both exacerbations and the disease itself initially. We are talking about smokers who use more than 20 cigarettes a day. Under the influence of cigarette smoke, immunity decreases, blood vessels are affected, and the antioxidant defense of the body weakens. As for alcohol, it does not affect the onset of this skin pathology, but can aggravate its course.
Psoriasis and pregnancy
Pregnancy greatly aggravates the treatment of psoriasis, since the use of far on all medicines is allowed. It is also worth understanding in detail the issue of pregnancy planning and other situations related to this period in a woman's life.
The reproductive function of women and men is not affected by the disease. As for possible harm to the baby, psoriasis is not transmitted by contact, so breastfeeding and communicating with the baby will not be a problem. Another thing is the ability of the disease to be transmitted at the genetic level, but the probability is not so great - 8-15% if one of the parents is sick. The risk increases if both parents are affected - 50-60%.
When planning a pregnancy, you should first undergo another course of treatment to achieve remission. We are talking specifically about a woman, since the condition of the father does not affect the bearing of the fetus. Stress also needs to be minimized and treated responsibly in this aspect.
As for pregnancy itself, many note that the course of the pathology is greatly facilitated, but the symptoms worsen immediately after childbirth. This is due to the weakening of the woman's immune system, since the child, in fact, depletes the body, absorbing nutrients through the umbilical cord. If there is a need for treatment during gestation, it is worth giving preference to safer means with a minimal likelihood of side effects. Analyze your condition, and you can understand how the disease will behave in future pregnancies. Next, it is worth considering which remedies can be used and which should be avoided.
|Local treatment||Preparations based on vitamin A are categorically contraindicated.||Glucocorticosteroids in the composition of ointments and creams are acceptable in minimal quantities. On the shoulders, abdomen and in the area of the mammary glands, the use is not recommended, since cortisone can provoke the appearance of stretch marks.|
|Preparations based on vitamin D are permissible only in small quantities in certain problem areas.||Soothing and moisturizing creams have no contraindications.|
|Systemic treatment||Methotrexate and acetritin provoke miscarriage or fetal defects. Treatment with these drugs before childbearing requires abstinence from pregnancy for 4 months. also, such drugs negatively affect the condition of the sperm of men, so the rule of compliance with this period also applies to the man.||UV-B phototherapy is not harmful, neither to the unborn child nor to the mother.|
|Puva therapy during pregnancy is also not suitable, as it requires prior use of photosensitizing agents.||In severe cases of the disease, Cycloporine can be prescribed, which does not have a negative effect on the child's body, but can provoke side effects in the mother.|
The presence of psoriasis is not a reason for performing a caesarean section during childbirth, but it is worth considering the possibility of the Koebner phenomenon. We are talking about the appearance of psoriasis in areas where the skin has been damaged. So far, no formal studies have been conducted regarding the rate of healing of these areas and the risk of infection.
Psoriasis after childbirth
After childbirth, in most cases, there is an exacerbation of the pathology, the cause of which is stress, fatigue, chronic lack of sleep, irregular and limited nutrition, and hormonal imbalance. Breastfeeding is allowed, since the pathology is not transmitted to the child with milk, however, when using medications over large areas, lactation is not recommended, since some components may enter milk.
No drug can guarantee 100% safety for the mother and fetus, so consultations with the doctor who leads the pregnancy are mandatory.
Despite the fact that psoriasis is chronic, with well-planned treatment, it is possible to successfully eliminate negative symptoms and avoid a decrease in the quality of life due to the many limitations associated with the disease.