Doctors often have to diagnose psoriasis in children. This disease occupies one of the leading positions among children's dermatitis, which have a chronic form. Signs of psoriasis can appear in a child of any age. This pathology is often observed even in newborn babies.
Reasons for the appearance
Modern medicine still cannot name the exact causes that affect the appearance and development of the disease. In the course of numerous studies, experts were able to find out that heredity plays an important role in this process. The following statistics were revealed:
- If one of the parents of the baby has psoriasis, then there is a 50% chance that he will show signs of a painful condition;
- If both parents have psoriasis, then the probability increases to 70%.
The development of clinical symptoms of psoriasis in a child is usually observed as a result of exposure to the child's body of such factors:
- Psycho-emotional experiences;
- Physical overload;
- infectious diseases;
- Allergic reactions.
Any adverse effect on the fragile body of the baby leads to such unpleasant consequences.
In a healthy person, there is a natural exfoliation of dead cells that have already passed their life cycle. If there is a failure in this process, then skin particles simply begin to accumulate on its surface. As a result of this, peculiar plaques are formed, which are able to increase in size and grow.
Psoriasis in children is recognized by the symptoms characteristic of this disease. First, redness appears on the skin. It is localized in the fold area. After that, swelling of the layers of the epidermis and their exfoliation are observed. As a rule, in children older than 2 years, they begin to peel off strongly.
If psoriasis appeared on the nails, then the child will have small depressions in the nail plastic. Similar body lesions occur in a third of babies who are sick with this pathology.
A psoriatic skin lesion, which is observed on the head, causes severe redness. Plaques cover the forehead, cheeks, ears and eyelids. Peeling of the skin on the hairline is not excluded. If the disease continues to progress, then gray scales will appear under the hair. However, their loss is not observed. This painful symptom is absent even in severe psoriasis.
In some children, psoriasis is detected on the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue. This area is covered with unpleasant spots, which change their color and shape from time to time.
Skin plaques always cause pain and severe itching. The rashes can peel and crack, causing sores and bleeding. This is a very dangerous condition, as the infection easily penetrates into the cracks. After about 10 years, psoriasis in a child, in its symptoms, begins to look like signs of the disease in adults.
Stages of development
With a standard course, a skin disease always goes through several stages of its development:
It is characterized by the appearance of primary rashes on the skin. Quite often, adults mistake it for a common allergy or diathesis. In children under two years of age, the initial stage is accompanied by redness. The rash is easily recognized due to the fact that it looks like limited pimples of a reddish hue. Within a few days, the rashes are smooth. After they are gradually covered with gray scales;
At this stage, there is a rapid growth of a rash on the head and other parts of the child's body. They begin to merge into one. Peeling is observed only on the central elements of the rash. The side zones, meanwhile, just grow. The skin gradually becomes inflamed and begins to itch. At this stage, the disease usually lasts from 2 weeks to several months;
Psoriasis in children continues to progress. His symptoms become more pronounced. Old plaques stop growing. They are replaced by new rashes. The peeling intensifies. The duration of this stage is not indicated by time frames;
The signs of peeling partially disappear in the child. The plaques become much smaller. They leave visible scars behind. With a successful outcome, zones begin to form with pigmentation that is different from the natural skin color. Over time, they completely disappear.
The duration of a separate stage of development of psoriasis in young children depends on how the disease proceeds and whether measures are taken to eliminate it.
Psoriasis in children can be of different types. On thematic photos you can see the features of the manifestation on the skin of each of them. The disease is classified depending on the symptoms and localization of scales.
It is diagnosed in children who are not yet 1 year old. The rash usually affects the gluteal region. They arise due to the constant contact of the skin with the natural secretions of the baby and due to rubbing with a diaper. The skin in this area is highly irritated, so doctors can hardly recognize psoriasis. Some parents do not even pay attention to this problem, as they take the rash for ordinary dermatitis.
This is a common form of skin pathology. Its characteristic features are red spots that cover different parts of the child's body. At first they are small in size. These spots grow very fast. After they start to peel off.
From above, the rashes are covered with a layer of scales, which are easily separated from the skin. Most often they appear on the head, knees and in the bend of the elbows.
With this form of the disease, the body of the child is covered with numerous rashes, which in their form resemble droplets. They are small and have a rounded shape. Formed papules are above the surface of the skin. They are characterized by severe peeling. A rash can occur in absolutely any part of the body. In the absence of a favorable factor for its further development, psoriasis ceases to progress and disappears. Under other circumstances, it develops into a different form of the disease.
Generalized pustular psoriasis
Psoriasis in children of this form occurs suddenly. In a short period of time, it affects large areas of the skin. They become very inflamed and covered with painful ulcers. The child is constantly tormented by pain in the area of accumulation of rashes.
This form of the disease is considered one of the most dangerous, as it can cause serious complications. This type of psoriasis can even lead to damage to internal organs. The kidneys and heart are most affected by its negative influence.
It is diagnosed in children who are already 7 years old. In young children, this form of psoriasis is observed only in rare cases.
There are quite pronounced signs of psoriasis in children. The pustular form of the disease is accompanied by swelling of the skin and its covering with small bubbles that are filled with non-infectious fluid. Another symptom of this type of psoriasis is inflammation of the lymph nodes.
A rather dangerous and unpredictable form of psoriasis. It leads to a violation of the thermoregulation of the body. The disease is recognized by severe peeling and inflammation of the skin. The child is constantly tormented by itching and pain in the affected area. Large areas of the epidermis begin to flake off over time. If the child is very small, then he may not survive such a condition.
Psoriasis of the flexion surfaces
From the name of the variety of the disease, one can understand that it affects the zones of the bends of the body. Usually rashes occur in the groin, genitals and inner thigh. The skin is covered with red spots. They are smooth and do not peel off.
This form of the disease affects the joints. Psoriatic pathology is recognized by symptoms such as muscle stiffness, swelling and swelling of the fingers. The joints begin to hurt a lot. In some cases, the child develops conjunctivitis.
Most types of psoriasis are very similar to each other in their clinical picture. Therefore, without consulting a doctor, it is very difficult to determine which form of the disease a child suffers from.
If a child has painful rashes on the head or other parts of the body, it should be immediately shown to a specialist. With such symptoms, a consultation with a dermatologist is required. He will be able to make a diagnosis after a complete examination of the patient and listening to his complaints. The doctor will prescribe a histological examination for the baby. To do this, a small sample of the affected tissue will be taken from him. The result of the laboratory analysis will help the dermatologist to make the correct diagnosis for the child. After that, he will be prescribed treatment, which should alleviate the painful condition.
Therapeutic therapy, the action of which is aimed at eliminating the signs of psoriasis in a small child, can be carried out at home or in a hospital. The latter option is the most optimal if the patient has a progressive stage of the disease.
It is necessary to learn how to treat psoriasis from a dermatologist who monitors the child's condition. He can offer a course of therapy based on the following medications:
- Sedative and desensitizing. You will need to take a solution of calcium gluconate (5%) or a solution of calcium chloride (10%). This must be done 3 times a day. The drug is taken in a teaspoon or a tablespoon, depending on the doctor's recommendation. Intramuscular injections based on calcium gluconate solution (10%) are also prescribed. It is necessary to undergo at least 10 procedures;
- Antihistamines. They help to get rid of severe itching. These drugs are taken in courses, each of which lasts up to 10 days;
- Vitamins. Usually, children are prescribed ascorbic acid, which must be taken 3 times a day up to 0. 1 g. A solution of pyridoxine (up to 5%) is also used. They give him injections. The introduction of vitamin B12 intramuscularly is shown. Inside take vitamin B15 and potassium orotate;
- Pyrogenic. They are necessary to stimulate the body's defense mechanisms. With their help, it is possible to normalize vascular permeability and eliminate the mitotic activity of skin layers. About 8 courses of injections are required to achieve optimal results.
Traditional medicine offers children who are diagnosed with psoriasis to undergo courses of active therapy. With such a diagnosis, ultraviolet radiation and hot baths help. Also, do not neglect topical preparations. Healing ointments and creams help soften the skin and reduce itching.
Individual medications that help cure psoriatic disease may be contraindicated in children. Then their parents and doctors have to select safer therapy for young patients, which will achieve a positive result. In such situations, traditional methods of treatment help well. You can alleviate the condition of the baby in the following ways:
- Lotions from German chamomile. They must be applied to places where a large number of painful rashes accumulate;
- Salt baths. They have a healing effect and disinfect wounds formed on the skin;
- Hot tea with the addition of medicinal herbs. Such a drink is best prepared from dandelion root, burdock, grapes, sarsaparilla and pear balm;
- Activated carbon. It removes harmful substances from the body and thereby stops the formation of new plaques on the head, legs, arms and other parts of the body. The drug-based solution should be taken 2 hours before meals. The course of such treatment should last at least 40 days;
- Tincture of celandine. It is taken orally. The tool is made from 1 glass of water and 1 tbsp. l. shredded plant. Before drinking, the drink should be infused for about 40 minutes. Take folk medicine 2 times a day.
A child with psoriasis must follow a special diet. His diet should include vegetable and fruit juices, fresh herbs, fish and turkey meat.
It is highly recommended to abandon animal products that are enriched with a large amount of fat. The patient must adhere to the optimal drinking regimen. He should drink about 8 glasses a day.
A huge number of people infected with psoriasis lead a completely normal life. But many are still worried about their appearance. This problem is of particular concern to children. Because of the illness, the child can become depressed and close in on himself. Therefore, parents should take any measures to protect their beloved child from such an unpleasant disease.
Preventing the formation of psoriatic rashes on the skin helps to maintain a proper lifestyle. It is necessary to provide the child with proper rest, sleep and a balanced diet. He should avoid hypothermia and prolonged exposure to the sun. Also contraindicated is the use of quick-drying soaps and lotions.
As a rule, psoriasis that manifests itself in a young child is rarely severe. Therefore, subject to the timely provision of medical care to the patient, he manages to quickly and permanently get rid of the signs of the pathological process. In order for the baby to recover, it should be completely protected from the factors that provoke the progression of psoriatic disease.